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अखिल भारतीय आयुर्विज्ञान संस्थान, नई दिल्ली
All India Institute Of Medical Sciences, New Delhi

Dr.S.K.Kabra and G.C.Khilnani

Management protocol for bird flu cases

When to suspect:

Patents presenting with Fever (body temperature of 38o Celsius or high) with one of the following symptoms:

Muscle ache, cough, abnormal breathing (unusual breathing difficulty) or suspected pneumonia by the physician, or influenza

in addition to

History of direct contact with infected / dead birds in past 7 days or

Occurrence of unusual death of birds in the community within the past 14 days; or

Contact with a pneumonia patient or another patient suspected of avian influenza

Case definition of probable case:symptoms of suspected case and Preliminary test shows infection of influenza group A, but cannot yet be confirmed whether it is from human or birds or

Respiratory failure or

Death

Case definition of Confirmed cases: A suspected or probable case with at least one of the following:

  • Positive viral culture for influenza A/H5
  • Positive RT PCR for influenza A/H5
  • Positive IFA for influenza A/H5
  • A 4 fold rise in influenza A/H5 specific antibody titers.

Management guideline for all suspected cases of avian flu:

Obtain NP swabs from all the patients (see annexure 1)

Assess severity of illness: Look for presence of following:

Respiratory distress as indicated by: increased respiratory rates, chest indrawing, dehydration, hypotension, altered sensorium or oxygen saturation of less than 93% in room air. If any of these are present patient should be admitted to ward in designated area and manage on following principles

  1. Isolate cases
  2. Monitor vital signs every 1-2 hours
  3. Maintain air way breathing and circulation (ABC)
  4. Maintain hydration, electrolyte balance, and nutrition
  5. Provide oxygen and assisted ventilation when indicated
  6. Manage fever with paracetamol
  7. Give antiviral Oseltamivir (For doses see annexure 2)
  8. Broad spectrum antibiotics for treatment of secondary pulmonary infection
  9. Avoid giving nebulized medications: chances of spread

Management of non severe cases

If patient is stable: (absence of above clinical features): take NP aspirate from all the patients and isolate them in the designated area identified for them and Start on Oseltamivir

Obtain lab results and see clinical course. If lab tests negative: discontinue Oseltamivir and provide supportive care, shift them to regular wards if hospitalization indicated otherwise send them home

If lab test is positive: Transfer to designated in patient area and continue supportive care and oseltamivir

Discharge policy

Adult patients: Infection control precautions for 7 days after resolution of fever

Children: Infection control measures for 21 days after onset of illness.

If discharged earlier: child should not attend school and parents should be educated to observe infection control measures at home.

Precautions for health care workers handling cases of avian flu Wear personal protective equipments

  1. Protective clothings:
    1. Overall plus an impermeable apron or surgical gown with long cuffed sleeves plus impermeable apron
    2. Heavy duty rubber work gloves that may be disinfected
    3. Standard well fitted surgical masks should be used if N 95 respiratory masks are not available.
    4. Goggles
    5. Rubber or polyurethane boots or protective foot cover
  2. Chemoprophylaxis:

    For close contacts: Oseltamivir 75 mg daily for 7 days

    Persons at risk: Oseltamivir 75 mg daily for the entire epidemic

  3. Monitoring of close contacts and health care workers exposed: observe for fever of >38 Celsius, watery diarrhoea, pain abdomen, headache, cough, rhinorrhoea, sore throat, shortness of breath and CNS manifestations. Check for them daily till 14 days of last exposure

Annexure 1

Collection and transport of samples

Samples from upper respiratory tract include

  1. Nsopharyngeal aspirate
  2. Nasal wash
  3. Throat swab

From lower respiratory tract samples >include :

  1. Transtracheal aspirate
  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage
  3. Lung biopsy
  4. Post-mortem lung or tracheal tissue

Specimens for the laboratory diagnosis of avian influenza A should be collected in the following order of priority:

  • nasopharyngeal aspirate/swab
  • acute serum
  • convalescent serum.

The sample collection should be done with all the necessary biosafety precautions including use of gowns, gloves and masks

The samples should be kept on ice and transported to virology laboratory as soon as possible

Annexure II

Antiviral drugs and their doses

Oseltamivir: is the only drug effective against H5N1 virus Doses are:

  • Adults: 75 mg twice a day for adults,
  • Children weighing

    < 15 Kg: 30 mg twice a day

    15-23 Kgs: 45 mg twice a day

    23-40 kgs: 60 mg twice a day

    > 40 kg: 75 mg twice a day

    Adverse effects of oseltamivir

    Nausea and vomiting: transient and occur in the beginning and are self limiting

    Abdominal pain, epistaxis, conjuctivitis

    Should be used in pregnancy with caution

    Contraindications:Hypersensitivity to drug

    Algorithm for management of Avian flu patients

    Suspect case of Avian flu

    (Patents presenting with Fever (body temperature of 38o Celsius or high) with one of the following symptoms: Muscle ache, cough, abnormal breathing (unusual breathing difficulty) or suspected pneumonia by the physician, or influenza in addition to History of direct contact with infected / dead birds in past 7 days >or Occurrence of unusual death of birds in the community within the past 14 days; or Contact with a pneumonia patient or another patient suspected of avian influenza)

    Obtain NP aspirates and send to lab

     

     

    Asses severity of illness

    (Look for presence of following Respiratory distress as indicated by: increased respiratory rates, chest indrawing, dehydration, hypotension, altered sensorium or oxygen saturation of less than 93% in room air)

    Any one of the above present

    Admit in designated area and treat as follows

    Isolate cases

    Monitor vital signs every 1-2 hours

    Maintain air way breathing and circulation (ABC)

    Maintain hydration, electrolyte balance, and nutrition

    Provide oxygen and assisted ventilation when indicated

    Manage fever with paracetamol

    Give antiviral Oseltamivir (For doses see annexure 2)

    Broad spectrum antibiotics for treatment of secondary pulmonary infection

    Avoid giving nebulized medications: chances of spread

    None of the above present

    Keep the patient in designated out patient area, start oseltamivir and collect lab report reportresults

    Send home with supportive care

    Transfer to general ward and manage according to

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